The Nutritional and Biochemical Indicators of Cardiovascular and Chronic Kidney Diseases Patients Compared to a Normal Group


1 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Nutritional Chemistry and Metabolism Department, National Nutrition Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

3 clinical pathology, National Institute of Urology and Nephrology, Cairo, Egypt


Open Access
*Corresponding author: Hanaa H El-Sayed, Nutritional Chemistry and Metabolism Dept., National Nutrition Institute,
Mobile: +0201008825869
Received: 20 April 2024
 Accepted:23 May 2024
 Published online: 14 June 2024
Mohamed MA; Emara AH; Ibrahim NR; Ahmad EM; Abd El-Hamid and El-Sayed HH (2024): The Nutritional and Biochemical Indicators of Cardiovascular and Chronic Kidney Diseases Patients Compared to a Normal Group, (63) 51 -76. doi. 10.21608/BNNI.2024.360774

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) exacerbate each other's progression, increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Studying these interrelated conditions requires strict nutritional and biochemical monitoring. By comparing macro- and micronutrient intake to the recommended daily intake (RDI), biochemical tracking provides valuable information about metabolic diseases, aiding early diagnosis and tailored treatment regimens. This study involved 60 subjects: 30 healthy controls and 30 patients with CKD and CVD from the outpatient clinic of the National Institute of Urology and Nephrology in Cairo, Egypt. The findings demonstrated that macronutrient intake in both groups was lower than the RDI except for protein. Both groups had inadequate vitamin D (VD) taken, getting smaller than 50% of the RDI, with significant differences noticed in serum VD levels, which were less in the CKD+CVD group. Except for sodium intake, higher than the RDI in both groups, all mineral intakes were below the RDI, with magnesium and potassium intake less than 50% of the RDI. Biochemical markers of renal mission, except for the estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR), were lower than normal in the patient group. The patient group had greater concentrations of cardiac markers such as creatine kinase, troponin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Their lipid profile showed significant increases in triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), very LDL-C, atherogenic index (AI), and atherogenic coefficient (AC), while high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) levels significantly decreased. This study emphasizes that nutritional intervention and novel biomarkers are crucial for these patients.


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